MARTINDALE'S
CALCULATORS ONLINE CENTER PART I: IN NAVIGATION  GPS (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals, Handbooks, Simulations, Animations, Videos, etc.) 
FOR GIS COURSES, TEXTBOOKS, ETC. SEE THE GEOSCIENCE CENTER: GEODESY  GEODYNAMICS FOR SURVEYING COURSES, TEXTBOOKS, ETC. SEE THE ENGINEERING CENTER: SURVEYING GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES, ETC.
WORLD GEOGRAPHIC NAMES  NGA GEONET NAMES SERVER (GNS)  National GeospatialIntelligence Agency VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Geographic Names Server
GETTY THESAURUS OF GEOGRAPHIC NAMES ON LINE  The J. Paul Getty Trust VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. For more information see Research at Getty or The Getty Australia AUSTRALIA GEOGRAPHIC PLACE NAMES  Geoscience Australia, Sydney, Australia VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. For more information see Topographic Mapping or Geoscience Australia U.S. U.S. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GNIS)  U.S. Board on Geographic Names, U.S. Geological Survery (USGS), Department of the Interior VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
GIS CALCULATORS & APPLETS
GIS TOOLS  CALCULATORS  Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas VERY EXTENSIVE. GIS Calculators include:
Area Conversion Calculator; DegMinSec to DecDeg Calculator; DecDeg to DegMinSec Calculator; Scale Calculator; Degrees to Radians Calculator; Time to GPS Seconds Calculator..."
GeographicLib
Online Geographic Coordinate Conversions using the GeoConvert Utility Calculator
Online Geodesic Calculations using the Geod Utility Online Geodesic Calculations using the Geod Utility Calculator
"...is accurate to about 15 nm and gives solutions for the inverse problem for any pair of points..." Online Geodesic Polygon and Polyline Calculations using the Planimeter Utility Online Geodesic Polygon and Polyline Calculations using the Planimeter Utility Calculator
"...In polyline mode, Planimeter calculates the length of the geodesic path joining the points..." Geodesic lines, circles, envelopes in Google Maps Geodesic lines, circles, envelopes in Google Maps Calculator
"...The inverse problem: specify the two end points as..." Online Geoid Calculations using the GeoidEval Utility Online Geoid Calculations using the GeoidEval Utility Calculator
Inverse/Forward/Invers3D/Forwrd3D Calculators include
State Plane Coordinates Calculator State Plane Coordinates Calculator
Surface Gravity Prediction Calculator in the Conterminous USA Surface Gravity Prediction Calculator in the Conterminous USA
Tidal and Orthometric Elevations Calculator: COOPS/NGS Elevation Data Tidal and Orthometric Elevations Calculator: COOPS/NGS Elevation Data
MAP SCALE CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Map Scale Calculator

PLANIGLOBE  M. Weinelt, S. Körsgen & R. Kantz, kk+w  digitale kartografie GmbH, Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Germany) VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE & VERY FAST. With Planiglobe
DESIGN YOUR OWN MAP (MAP MAKER)  Map Maker Ltd., Developed by: Tony Steinke, Argyll, Scotland VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Design Your Own Map  MAP MAKER
GMT3: THE GENERIC MAPPING TOOLS  Developed and Maintained by: P. Wessel & W.H.F. Smith, Department of Geology and Geophysics, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai'i at Manoa VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE & VERY FAST. Generic Mapping Tools (GMT)
Distance & Location
DISTANCE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS LOCATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS GREAT CIRCLE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS GEOGRAPHIC MIDPOINT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS GEOGRAPHIC MIDPOINT CALCULATOR WITH MAPS  Dean Schmidt VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Available in English & Spanish/Español. Geographic Midpoint Calculator
GEODESIC LINES, CIRCLES, ENVELOPES IN GOOGLE MAPS  Charles F.F. Karney, SRI International, Princeton, New Jersey VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Geodesic lines, circles, envelopes in Google Maps Calculator
"...The inverse problem: specify the two end points as..." RANDOM POINT GENERATOR WITH MAPS  Dean Schmidt VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Available in English & Spanish/Español. Random Point Generator With Maps
GREAT CIRCLE MAPPER  K.L. Swartz VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Great Circle Mapper
GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE CALCULATOR AND SWELL ARRIVAL CALCULATOR  StormSurf VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Great Circle Distance Calculator & Swell Arrival Calculator
GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCE CALCULATOR  J. Owen, Wirral Peninsula, County of Merseyside, U.K.. VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see the Amateur Radio & Audio JavaScript Collection; Amateur Radio & Electronics or John Owen's Home Page GREAT CIRCLE CALCULATOR  E. Williams VERY EXTENSIVE. Great Circle Calculator
GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES (JAVA APPLET)  P. Kirby VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Vector Land TIME AND DISTANCE CALCULATOR  Ascend Flight Information Solutions, Rockwell Collins Time and Distance Calculator

City Distance Calculator
Doppler Shift  Doppler Effect
Examples of "Doppler Effect" Lectures include
Moving Observer; Moving Source; Light and Electromagnetic Radiation; Shock Waves; etc..." DOPPLER SHIFT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Relativistic Doppler Effect Calculator INPUT Values include:
DOPPLER EFFECT (JAVA APPLET)  J.M. Pearce & W. Christian, Department of Physics, Davidson College, North Carolina For more information see Physlets; WebPhysics or the Department of Physics 
GPS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Inverse/Forward/Invers3D/Forwrd3D Calculators include
State Plane Coordinates Calculator State Plane Coordinates Calculator
Surface Gravity Prediction Calculator in the Conterminous USA Surface Gravity Prediction Calculator in the Conterminous USA
Tidal and Orthometric Elevations Calculator: COOPS/NGS Elevation Data Tidal and Orthometric Elevations Calculator: COOPS/NGS Elevation Data
Magnetic
ESTIMATED VALUES OF MAGNETIC FIELD  National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), NOAA VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Geomagnetism or the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) CORRECTED GEOMAGNETIC COORDINATES  Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. IGRF/DGRF Model Parameters and Corrected Geomagnetic Coordinates Calculator
GEOMAGNETISM REALTIME DATA  Geology Division, United States Geological Survey (USGS) Multimedia Geomagnetism Database (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Geomagnetism RealTime Data
GEOMAGNETIC FIELD CALCULATOR  E. Williams VERY EXTENSIVE. Geomagnetic Field Calculator
THE IGRF APPLET  K. Korhonen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland VERY EXTENSIVE. IGRF Applet
LINEAR INVERSION CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Geophysical inversion
MAGNETIC DECLINATION CALCULATORS & APPLETS
The Magnetic Information Retrieval Program (MIRP)
MAGNETIC DIPOLE CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Magnetic Dipole Modeling Applet's
Mercator
Transverse Mercator Calculator converts
For more information see DMAP UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR COORDINATES  National Geodetic Survey, NOAA VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate (UTM) system

OCEAN NAVIGATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS SEA NAVIGATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS DATALOY DISTANCE TABLE: PORTS DISTANCE & VOYAGE TIME CALCULATOR  Datalay VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Dataloy Distance Table: Ports Distance & Voyage Time Calculator includes
23000 Waypoints; 150000 Logical Relations Between Waypoints; 11000 Geographical References including: Capes, Lighthouses, Reefs, Islands, etc..." MARINER MATH: NAVIGATION MATH FOR MARINERS  Dan Ritchie VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Navigation Calculators provide
TrueMagneticCompass Calculator..." Current Sailing Calculators
Solve for Drift and Set Calculator; Solve for STW and Course Calculator; etc..."
Depth Calculator; Scope and Rode Calculator..." MARINE NAVIGATION CALCULATORS  Maritime Safety Information, National Geospatial Intelligence Agency VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. For more information see Maritime Safety Information or the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency
Examples of "Celestial Navigation Calculators" include
Altitude Correction for Air Temperature Calculator; Table of Offsets Calculator; Latitude and Longitude Factors Calculator; Altitude Correction for Atmospheric Pressure Calculator; Altitude Factors & Change of Altitude Calculator; Compass Error from Amplitudes Observed on the Celestial Horizon Calculator; Meridian Angle and Altitude of a Body on the Prime Vertical Circle; etc..." Distance Calculators Examples of "Distance Calculators" include:
Speed for Measured Mile and Speed, Time, and Distance Calculator; Distance of an Object by Two Bearings Calculator; Distance of the Horizon Calculator; Traverse Table Calculator; Geographic Range Calculator; Distance by Vertical Angle Measured Between Waterline at Object and Top of Object Calculator; Dip of Sea Short of the Horizon Calculator; Meridional Parts; etc..."
PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC REALTIME SYSTEMS FOR PORTS
The Physical Oceanographic RealTime System
"...Measures and disseminates observations and predictions of
Meteorological Parameters
Chesapeake Bay includes
Solomons Island; Washington DC; etc..." Delaware River and Bay Delaware River and Bay includes
Houston/Galveston Houston & Galveston include:
Los Angeles & Long Beach Los Angeles & Long Beach include
New York & New Jersey Harbor Ports New York & New Jersey include
Port of Anchorage Port of Anchorage includes
San Francisco Bay San Francisco Bay includes
Soo Locks Soo Locks include
Rock Cut; SouthWest Pier/Upper; etc..." 
Lighthouse Directory
AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) CAPCALC TO DETERMINE THE MESSAGE CAPACITY OF AN AIS BASESTATION  I. Harre, Bremen, Germany VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Automatic Identification System
Ship at anchor or moored and not moving faster than 3 knots; Ship at anchor or moored and moving faster than 3 knots; Ship 014 knots; Ship 014 knots and changing course; Ship 1423 knots; Ship 1423 knots and changing course; etc..." SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR COURSES, LECTURES, LESSONS, TECHNICAL REPORTS
Examples of "Synthetic Aperture Radar" Subject Categories include
KuBand Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery; Sandia MiniSAR  Miniaturized Synthetic Aperture Radar; MTI & CCD Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery; RTV Synthetic Aperture Radar; XBand Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery; etc..."
UAVs  Taking Reconnaissance to Another Level  UAVs: The Way Ahead; etc..." RADAR ANTENNA CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Radar Antenna Calculator
Vertical Beamwidth; Antenna Gain; etc..."
RADAR BEAMWIDTH CALCULATORS & APPLETS
BEAMWIDTH CALCULATOR  BEAM PROPERTY CALCULATOR  Warning Decision Training Division (WDTD), National Weather Service (NWS), NOAA VERY EXTENSIVE. Beamwidth Calculator
RADAR BOUNDARYRELATIVE SPEED CALCULATORS & APPLETS
BoundaryRelative Speed Calculator
RADAR 'FREESPACE RANGE' CALCULATORS & SPREADSHEETS (XLS)
Radar FreeSpace Range Calculator
NAVGEN Algorithm to determine 2D Position Fixing Errors; etc..." RADAR HORIZON CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Radar Horizon Calculator is

SPACE NAVIGATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS NASA REAL TIME ORBITAL TRACKING DATA  NASA VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Tracking Applications include
SATELLITE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS  ALL INCLUSIVE
Noise Figure  Temperature Calculator INPUT Values include:
DVB Downlink Budget Calculator DVB Downlink Budget Calculator INPUT Values include:
Satellite txp. Carrier to cochannel interference; Location; etc..." IF Frequency Calculator IF Frequency Calculator INPUT Values include:
Sun Position Autoupdate Calculator Sun Position Autoupdate Calculator INPUT Values include:
CIRCULAR ORBIT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Circular Orbit Satellite INPUT Values include:
Halfangle of Visibility; Maximum Slant Height; Maximum Slant Range; Satellite Velocity; etc...." LINK BUDGET CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Satellite Link Budget Calculator INPUT Values include:
Uplink Antenna, Power at the Feed; Range; Bandwidth; Satellite Uplink G/T dB/K..." SATELLITE AZIMUTH CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
SATELLITE FINDER WITH MAGNETIC NORTH, AZIMUTH & ELEVATION CALCULATOR  E. Johnston, Satellite Signals Ltd., Chelmsford, Essex, U.K. VERY EXTENSIVE. Satellite Finder with Bagnetic North, Azimuth & Elevation Calculator will
TV Dish, Internet, etc. to Satellite
SATELLITE FINDER WITH MAGNETIC NORTH, AZIMUTH & ELEVATION CALCULATOR  E. Johnston, Satellite Signals Ltd., Chelmsford, Essex, U.K. VERY EXTENSIVE. Satellite Finder with Bagnetic North, Azimuth & Elevation Calculator INPUT Values include:

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