MARTINDALE’S CALCULATORS ONLINE CENTER PART I: OZ SPORTS & GAMES: ARCHERY TO YACHTING (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, 
ARCHERY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
ARROW CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS FOC & WEIGHT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS KINETIC ENERGY (K.E.) BALLISTIC CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
behaviour of the bow/arrow/archer system (termed ‘interior ballistics’) and the arrow in flight (termed ‘exterior ballistics’) are somewhat complicated. In order to understand the mechanics of archery computer models are required…” Examples of “Archery Mechanics” Textbook Chapters include
Arrow Vibration; Arrow Flight; Tuning; etc…”
On the Mechanics of the Bow and Arrow; On the Mechanics of the Modern WorkingRecurve Bow; On the Mechanics of the Arrow; Archery and Mathematical Modelling; etc…” For more information see ARROW PENETRATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Construction/Flight. Each work in concert, and one can sometimes influence one or more of the others…” “…Kinetic Energy, which is commonly abbreviated as ‘KE,’ is the determining factor when it comes to penetration. The other factors play a part, certainly, but no where near to the extent that KE does. If you have enough KE, you can almost (but not quite) forget about the other factors…” Arrow Penetration Calculator INPUT Values include:
How fast (in feet per second) are your arrows…” For more information see ARROW & SHAFT SELECTORS, CROSSBOWS, ETC.
Select Draw Weight
Select Arrow Length
For more information see 
BACKGAMMON CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
consisting of twentyfour narrow triangles called points. The triangles alternate in color and are grouped into four quadrants of six triangles each…” For more information see
BACKGAMMON CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BASEBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
into the design of a baseball or softball bat, especially the new hightech aluminum and composite bats which are currently dominating the market. There is also an amazing amount of physics involved in the batball collision, and in the performance and behavior of the bat itself…” Examples of “Physics and Acoustics of Baseball and Softball Bats” Lessons include
How large are the forces between bat and ball?; How does bat weight affect swing speed and ball velocity?; Which matters more: total weight or mass distribution (inertia)?; What is the COP (center of percussion) and does it matter?; What (and where) is the sweet spot of a bat?; etc…” For more information see
The Effect of Spin on the Flight of a Baseball; The Physics of the Trampoline Effect in Baseball and Softball Bats; How to Hit Home Runs: Optimum Baseball Bat Swing Parameters for Maximum Range Trajectories; Paradoxical popups: Why are they hard to catch?; Newton in the Batter’s Box; Baseball at High Altitude; etc…” For more information see BASEBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
the flight of the ball. The resulting flight path is three dimensional, so you must specify some additional parameters not found on the student version. You can also view the results of the pitch from behind home plate…” For more information see
throws a curveball by changing the values of the factors that affect the aerodynamic forces on the ball…”
of a wing turns a flow, and so does a rotating cylinder. A spinning ball also turns a flow and generates an aerodynamic lift force. The details of how a spinning ball creates lift are fairly complex. Next to any surface, the molecules of the air stick to the surface, as discussed in the properties of air slide. This thin layer of molecules entrains or pulls the…”
we neglect the viscous forces on the ball, which slow it down and change the magnitude and direction of the force, we have a constant force always acting perpendicular (at a right angle) to the flow direction…” BASEBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

BASKETBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
basketball every time…” For more information see
offensive rating wins a game…There are two principal ways for evaluating the offensive abilities of individual players. One of them, floor percentage, is an estimate of the percentage of times a player contributes to his team scoring. The other, his offensive rating, is an estimate of the number of points created by that player per 100 possessions. Originally, floor percentage was developed as the principal measure of a player’s offensive ability…” Individual Winning Percentage Calculator INPUT Values include
Offensive Rating: the number of points produced per 100 possessions; Possessions Per Game: Possessions used per game; etc…” For more information see
Of Point Spreads and Predictions: Using a Kalman Filter Examples of Calculators include
BODY BUILDING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
set number of reps, multiply your reps by that coefficient to determine the proper weight for the reps (I know it’s confusing, the examples at the bottom will clear it up)…” For more information see BODY BUILDING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BODY BUILDING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
pressing (i.e. strength exercises) workout routines. The resulting exercise program is intended to increase strength, not mass. This should not be used as your only squatting or pressing program over an extended period of time. This is intended as a means of inserting some variation into your programming and should not be used as a program mainstay…” For more information see BOWLING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BOWLING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BRIDGE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
problems. The program does not care about the actual meaning of your missing cards or the characters you use to define them. That is, you can check combinations in more than one suits. For example you can see the odds of the actual combined break of…” For more information see BRIDGE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
CHESS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
CHESS GRADING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
CHESS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
in any of the twelve boxes below, followed by your total score. Click on the performance button to see your estimated performance rating…” For more information see 
CYCLING COURSES, LECTURES, LESSONS, ETC.
Pressure Pressure
per unit area. In a gas, it is the force per unit area exerted by the change of momentum of the molecules impinging on the surface. We know from Newton’s second law that a net resultant force will cause a change of momentum in a body, and that the rate of change of momentum is equal to the applied force…”
direction (velocity is a vector, and it has a magnitude and a direction). To visualize this in a flow, we could imagine the motion of a small marked element of fluid. For example, we could mark…”
divided into two components: frictional drag, and pressure drag. Frictional drag comes from friction between the fluid and the surfaces over which it is flowing. This friction is associated with the development of boundary layers, and…” CYCLING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
TRAIL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
estimating cycling performance and parameters. It makes extensive use of differential equations and advanced numerical methods. Analytic Cycling methods respond in real time, characteristically returning tables and plots as products of the methods…”
your bike. Figure out weight loss from a simple flat ride, or from a course with a variety of elevation gains and other factors…”
in watts and they tell you how fast you’ll go…”
segments to represent a climb and then a descent, as the default values depict. Use more segments for a more complicated course…” BICYCLING ENERGY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
the energy required to lift your weight (and the bike’s) the specified height, assumes a conversion efficiency of 25 percent, and a base metabolic rate of 50 calories per hour…” For more information see BICYCLING FITNESS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Number of Minutes You Climbed; Average Speed in Revolutions per Minute During Your Climb; etc…” BICYCLE AERODYNAMICS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS CALCULATE THE AERODYNAMIC DRAG AND PROPULSIVE POWER OF A BICYCLIST – The Exploratorium Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist Calculator
cyclist’s speed, accounting for 70 to 90 percent of the resistance felt when pedaling…” For more information see BICYCLE FRAME DESIGN CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
created several variations of this program to accommodate specific designs and tasks such as recumbents, full suspension, tandems, and wheel building…” For more information see
WheelCAD Calculator WheelCAD
BICYCLE GEAR CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BICYCLE WHEEL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS BICYCLE SPOKE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
your hpv (bike, trike, etc), if it uses chain coupled sprockets with an optional shaft coupled pair…”
and that you know how to measure the nonspoke components of your future wheel…” For more information see
DARTS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

FISHING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
FLY FISHING KNOTS CALCULATORS & APPLETS FISHING KNOTS CALCULATORS & APPLETS BOATING ROPE KNOTS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Stanley’s Hopper Video; Tying Tuft and Tail Patterns Video; etc…” For more information see
in other applications…Fishing knots are designed to be tied in monofilament line and to run through the eyes and rings of a fishing rod or rig. Compared to rope, fishing line is cheap. The emphasis for fishing knots is on compactness and reliability with no interest in being able to untie them…” For more information see
crucial to success, as many of us have learned to our cost. It is important to get our fishing knots right, in securing our backing line to the reel; in connecting our…” For more information see FISH WEIGHT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
girth (measured immediately in front of the dorsal fin). Both measurements can be made quite easily using an ordinary measuring tape…” For more information see FOOTBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Examples from over “18” “Football Physics” Course Video Lectures include
Vectors Video Lecture; Newton’s Third Law Video Lecture; Impulse Video Lecture; Atoms and Photons Video Lecture; Quickness, Speed, Power and Strength Video Lecture; Momentum Video Lecture; Punting Video Lecture; Symmetry Video Lecture; Distribution of Force Video Lecture; Energy Consumption Video Lecture; Tackling Video Lecture; Kinematics Video Lecture; Advanced Momentum Video Lecture; Turf Physics Video Lecture; etc…” For more information see FOOTBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
calculate button and the results will show up below…” GLIDING/SOARING RELATED CENTERS FOR AERONAUTICS & AEROSPACE ENGINEERING COURSES, DATABASES, CALCULATORS, SPREADSHEETS, ETC. SEE GLIDING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
SOARING FORCAST – U.S.
sounding data, plus the thermal index calculations depicted in tabular form and graphically. If run between 1200Z and 2359Z, the report will be based on the 12Z sounding data. Otherwise it will be based on the 0Z data, using the forecast high temperature for that day…” GLIDER WINCH LAUNCH CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
pilots. It is possible to qualitatively describe what is going on but some explanations require the support of quantitative information. As a result I have modeled a winch launch. There are many complicated interactions between wire, glider, air and winch. It is so complicated that a completely accurate simulation is difficult so have had to make some simplifying assumptions…” For more information see GLIDING & SOARING: CLIMB & DESCENT GRADIENT CALCULATOR; GLIDING DISTANCE CALCULATOR;
Gliding Distance & Glide Ratio Calculator; Rate of Turn, Bank Angle and Load Factor Calculator; Pivotal Altitude Calculator; Time to VOR Calculator; Distance from VOR Calculator; etc…” For more information see
Data from over 25 Sailplanes including the ASH25, ASW19, Discus, Hornet etc., Wing Loading, Desired Angle of Bank, etc…” For more information see
GLIDING & SOARING: TASK PLANNING CALCULATOR
contest series database, the Agua Fria River Racers (AFRR) database used by pilots flying out of Turf, and the modified AFRR database that includes mountain turnpoints…” For more information see GLIDING & SOARING: BGA TURNPOINTS & CROSSCOUNTRY CALCULATOR
GLIDING & SOARING: DISTANCES BETWEEN GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS CALCULATOR
Location from Distance and Bearing Calculator
For more information see GOKART CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
For more information see GOLF CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
for any course…” For more information see the 
RIFLE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS SHOTGUN CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Ballistic Coefficients (Velocity) Calculator; Bullet Drag and Twist Calculator; Drag Function Conversion Calculator; Maximum Distance Calculator; Modified Point Mass Trajectory Calculator; Bower Factor Calculator; Recoil Calculator; etc…” For more information see
Ballistic Coefficients (Velocity) Calculator Ballistic Coefficients Calculator
ballistic coefficient of a bullet fired over a known distance…” Ballistic Coefficients Calculator INPUT Values include:
Temperature; Pressure; Relative Humidity; Altitude; …”
drag and stability (not Greenhill’s formula) based on bullet dimensions…” Bullet Drag and Twist Calculator INPUT Values include:
Nose Type; Boattail Length; Base Diameter; Total Length; Rotating Band Diameter; Weight; etc…”
Trajectory Calculator INPUT Values include:
Caliber; Muzzle Velocity; Chronograph Distance; Sight Height; Sight Offset; Zero Height; Zero Offset; Azimuth; Elevation; LOS Angle; Cant Angle; Wind Speed; Wind Angle; Target Speed; Target Angle; etc…”
Bullet Muzzle Energy Calculator Bullet Muzzle Energy Calculator
using the bullet mass and the velocity…”
free velocity by the bullet, wad, gun & powder charge masses & muzzle velocity…”
Exterior Ballistics, Recoil Calculator, Wound Channel Calculator, Stopping Power Calculators (mutiple), Round Ball Weight Calculator, Powder Calculators, and more! A onestop resource for your technical ballistic data needs…” Ballistics Calculators include:
Relative Penetration Calculator; Thornily Relative Stopping Power Calculator; Taylor Knock Out Power Calculator; FootPounds Energy Calculator; Recoil Calculator; Ballistic Coefficient (BC) Calculator; External Ballistics Calculator; Loads per Pound of Powder Calculator; Sectional Density Calculator; Cost per Load/Box Calculator; etc…” For more information see
penetration index for any given bullet. Calculates based on bullet weight and Meplat or fronal area of the bullet…”
relative stopping power quotient the amount of gun and load necessary…”
of a load…”
fast the gun comes back at you, as well as how many footpounds are traveling with it…”
Sight Height: Intervals; Maximum Range; Muzzle Elevation; Degrees; Temperature; Altitude; Wind Miles per Hour; Wind Direction…” Ballistic Calculator OUTPUT Values include:
Point of Impact in Relation to Aiming Point; Time of Flight; Remaining Energy in Foot Pounds; Wind Drift;…” For more information see BALLISTICS COEFFICIENT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BULLET PENETRATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
it’s information based on the bullet’s weight and frontal area of the nose. The index number generated does not represent inches of penetration, but rather provides a very precise tool for comparing the penetration potential of any two nonexpanding bullets. To utilize this tool for expanding bullets, you must first determine the anticipated diameter of the bullet after expansion…” For more information see HANDLOADING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
For more information see
reduced load based on the velocity you want to achieve…” Reduced Load Calculator INPUT Values include:
Desired Velocity in Feet per Second…” For more information see RECOIL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
For more information see
design, grip design and people it will not give you a direct correlation from one firearm to another,…” Recoil and Velocity Calculator INPUT Values include:
For more information see SCOPE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
borescope sighting distance, align the bore of the rifle with the center of a target. Now adjust the scope such that it is aimed at a point “X” inches below the center of the target…” Bore Scope Offset Calculator INPUT Values include:
Muzzle Velocity; Distance at which you want the Gun Zeroed; Distance at which you are Bore Sighting the Gun;…” For more information see the SHOTGUN PATTERN DENSITY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
depending on the size of the shot, the size of the load, and the constriction of the choke. This is valuable to understand the effects of shotgun patterning with various choke constrictions and the density of shot patterns for various loads…” Shotgun Pattern Density Calculator INPUT Values include:
Load Size (1/2 Ounze to 2 Ounzes); Choke
Shotgun Pattern Density Calculator OUTPUT values include:
For more information see SHOTGUN RECOIL ENERGY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
SHOTGUN VELOCITY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
free velocity by the bullet, wad, gun & powder charge masses & muzzle velocity…” Shotgun Recoil Energy, Impulse & Velocity Calculator INPUT Values include:
For more information see TRAPSHOOTING CALCULATORS, APPLETS & SPREADSHEETS (XLS)
Primer Cost; How many Primers; Wad Costs; How many Wads; Shot Cost; How Many Pounds; How Many Ounces in your Reload; Hull Costs; How many Hulls; etc…” Trapshooting Reloading Cost Calculator Advanced; For more information see 
HORSEMANSHIP CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
FOR HORSEMANSHIP & EQUESTRIAN COURSES, DATABASE, ETC. SEE THE DEER WEIGHT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
hanging weight…” For more information see ICE HOCKEY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
subjective “strength” that a skater feels from a blade is a function of the “bite angle”, which is 90 degrees less the angle between the side of the blade and the hollow…” Ice Skate Blade Angle Calculator
and the other field values will be recalculated when you leave the field…” For more information see ICE HOCKEY CHECKING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
we can discover how much energy is expended in an open ice hit…” Checking Calculator
and “stick” to each other during the collision. This is called an inelastic collision. Even though the players may not come to a complete stop (depending on their weights and speeds), we can still calculate the amount of energy that will be dissipated in the collision…” For more information see ICE HOCKEY SAVE’S & GOALS CALCULATORS & APPLETS
ICE SKATING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
subjective “strength” that a skater feels from a blade is a function of the “bite angle”, which is 90 degrees less the angle between the side of the blade and the hollow…” Ice Skate Blade Angle Calculator
and the other field values will be recalculated when you leave the field…” For more information see ICE SKATING SAILING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
KITE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
the flight of a kite. You can choose from several types of kites and change the shape, size, and materials to produce your own design. You can change the values of different variables which affect the design and immediately see the new flight characteristics…” For more information see KITE KNOTS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
LUGE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
he gets going (after the start), it follows that the fastest time on the track is largely determined by the luger who minimizes those factors that slow him down. These factors are: air resistance, sliding friction with the ice, and inefficient navigation along the straight and turn portions of the track…” For more information see 
ORIENTEERING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
a compass to find points in the landscape. It can be enjoyed as a walk in the woods or as a competitive sport…” Badge Time Calculator
For more information see PHYSICAL FITNESS RELATED CENTERS FOR NUTRITION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS SEE THE FOR 1,000’s OF RECIPES SEE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
PAINTBALL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
its capacity in cubic feet (CF). Most tanks will have this clearly marked on the label. For small paintball tanks rated in cubic inches and…” For more information see BILLIARDS AND POOL VIDEOS
Spin and English Videos; Bank and Kick Shots Videos; Advanced Techniques (Shot Making) Videos; Additional clips not referenced in the book
Kick shot perpendicular to the rail with English Video; Draw shot with small offset, firm grip, punch stroke, slow speed, and about 1.5 feet of draw Video; Cut shot with outside English and slow speed Video; Two frozen object balls hit with a 15degree approach angle stop shot at slow and fast speeds Video; English and squirt for a soft tip at slow speed and increasing offsets Video; Power break – cue followthrough Video; Rail cutshot hitting the ball first early with OE; etc…” For more information see
Spin and English Videos; Position Play and Strategy Videos; Bank and Kick Shots Videos; Advanced Techniques (Shot Making) Videos; Additional clips not referenced in the book
Doublekiss bank shot examples with Tom Ross Video; Draw shots near a rail, with Tom Ross; Cue ball position control with nearly straightin shots Video; Cue ball path speed effects Video; etc…” For more information see BILLIARDS AND POOL COURSES, LECTURES, ETC. BILLIARDS AND POOL TECHNICAL ANALYSES – David G. Alciatore, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Colorado State University Multimedia Billiards and Pool Technical Analyses (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY…EXTENSIVE. Examples of “Billiards and Pool Technical Analyses” Chapters & Lessons include
Spin and English; Bank and Kick Shots; Additional Proofs
The Effects of English on the 30 Degress Rule; Cue accelerometer measurements; The relationship between cue ball spin and cue tip offset; The effect of spin, speed, and cut angle on draw shots; The physics of squirt; Draw shot physics; etc…” For more information see
ROCK CLIMBING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
towerclimbers, and others who use rope in mancarrying applications. The knots can be selected from the index on the left, by their pictures above, or from a page which describes their various uses…” For more information see MOUNTAIN CLIMBING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
course and provides an interesting problem solving activity. To get to the top of the mountain before winter arrives, students must derive an equation that relates the necessary amount of hemoglobin to the partial pressure of oxygen at the current and next camp…” For more information see MOUNTAIN CLIMBING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
CAVING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

ROWING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
You move water one way with your oar, the boat moves the other way. The momentum (=mass x velocity) you put into the water will be equal and opposite to the momentum acquired by the boat…During the normal stroke (i.e. with the boat already moving) it is less obvious that water is moved backwards in order to keep the boat moving forwards since the blades appear to ‘lock’ in where they are placed, but…” Examples of “Physics of Rowing” Course Chapters & Subchapters include
Speed Variation; Balance; Levers; Gearing; Newton’s Laws of Motion…” Physics of Weight & Rowing
Relationship between Weight and Erg Speed; Relationship between Weight and Boat Speed; Effect of Deadweight; etc…” Physics of Ergometers
Measuring the Damping; Measuring the Power Supplied; Effect of Altitude; etc…” For more information see ROWING ERG CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
RUNNING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
PACE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
use those to determine your target pulse rates for training and racing. Otherwise Wizard will assume 220 – age for your Max and 50 for Rest HR…” For more information see 
SCUBA DIVING
Underwater Physiology and Diving Disorders; Dive Systems; etc…” Air Diving Operations
Surface Supplied Air Diving Operations; Air Decompression; Nitrogen Oxygen Diving Operations; Ice and Cold Water Diving Operations; etc…” Mixed Gas Surface Supplied Diving Operations
Mixed Gas Operational Planning; Surface Supplied Mixed Gas Diving Procedures; Saturation Diving; Breathing Gas Mixing Procedures…” ClosedCircuit and Semiclosed Circuit Diving Operations
MK 16 MOD 1 Closed Circuit MixedGas; Closed Circuit Oxygen UBA Diving…” Diving Medicine and Recompression Chamber Operations
Recompression Chamber Operation; Neurological Examination; First Aid; Dangerous Marine Animals…” For more information see the SCUBA DIVING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
suggested Safety Stop while scuba diving at altitude…”
for proper buoyancy. Your weight, dive experience…”
required to recover an underwater object from fresh or salt water…” UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY
Settings & Technical Info; Dome Ports and WideAngle Optics; Lighting and Strobes; Underwater Composition; WideAngle Photography; Macro Underwater Photography; Photographing Schools of Fish; etc. Underwater Cameras;
Electrogenesis in Torpedo Rays; Hydrostatic Pressure at a Point; The Hydrostatic Paradox; Constancy of Wave Period; Particle Motion in Deep Water; etc…” Examples of Underwater Photography General Optics Course Chapters include
Refraction of Light by Water; External Reflection From a Water Surface; Internal Reflection From a Water Surface; Total Internal Reflection; etc… Examples of Underwater Photography Lens Optics Course Chapters include
Diopters and LenstoSubject Distances; Closeup Lenses and Magnification; Diffraction and Photography; Underwater Magnifier; Underwater Spectacles; Effective Focal Lengths of a Lens and Plane Port; Field of View at a Planar Interface; etc…” 
SKIING ENCYCLOPEDIAS, LECTURES, CALCULATORS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
For more information see SKYDIVING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
with different fall rates, given the fall rate, airplane speed, and winds…” For more information see SLED DOG RACING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
SNOWBOARDING ENCYCLOPEDIAS, LECTURES, CALCULATORS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
SNOWMOBILE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
center distance in inches between the drive shaft and jack shaft to have the calculator determine the proper chain pitch. Then enter the number of cogs on the drive sprocket and the engine RPM to have the calculator figure the MPH for the gear ratio and engine RPM…” For more information see SOCCER CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
QUANTUM SOCCER CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
quantummechanical “ball” so that the probability of it being inside one of the goals rises above a set threshold. This is achieved by using the motion of the players to alter the energy spectrum of the wave function: when a player moves across the field, the…” For more information see SURFING COURSES, LECTURES, ETC.
Wave generation, propagation; Wave refraction; Energetics of surfing; Fluid mechanics of a surfboard; Where the Swell Begins; etc…” For more information see
SURFING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
on the planet (in nautical miles) or determine how long it will take a swell to travel to your beach…” For more information see TRIATHLON CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
TRIATHLON PACE CALCULATORS & APPLETS
TRACK & FIELD CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
the factors required to be tested, and are thus objective rather than subjective. In doing so all tests should therefore be specific (designed to assess an athlete’s fitness for the activity in question), valid (test what they purpose to test), reliable…” For more information see
DECATHLON CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
110 Meter Hurdles; Discus; Pole Vault; Javelin & 1500 Meters…” For more information see HETPTATHLON CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Javelin; & 800 Meters…” For more information see WINDSURFING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
WIND SPEED CALCULATORS & APPLETS
between by clicking the “kitesize” and “boardsize” tabs at the bottom…” For more information see
YACHTING RELATED CENTERS FOR NAVIGATION COURSES SEE NAVIGATION FOR NAVIGATION CALCULATORS SEE CALCULATORS CENTER: NAVIGATION FOR NAVIGATION BY THE STARS IN REALTIME SEE ASTROPHYSICS: SKY CHARTS IN REAL TIME FOR KNOTS, LASHINGS & RIGGING SEE KNOTS, LASHINGS & RIGGING PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS CALCULATORS & APPLETS
performed over the last ten years. With this information, you can decide for yourself which manufacturer has the most efficient and best performing boats in the size range you are looking for…” For more information see PROP CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Propeller Slip & Speed…” For more information see 
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