MARTINDALE’S CALCULATORS ONLINE CENTER PHYSICS CENTER PHYSICS BY SUBJECT: QZ (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, 
Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Mechanics Courses, Textbooks, Calculators, Simulations, etc.
Undergraduate Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Courses, Textbooks, etc.
The Density Operator; Time Evolution in Quantum Mechanics; Harmonic Oscillators and Coherent States; Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields,; Rotations in Quantum Mechanics, and Rotations of Spin 1/2 Systems; Spins in Magnetic Fields; Central Force Motion; Irreducible Tensor Operators and the WignerEckart Theorem; BoundState Perturbation Theory; etc…” For more information see
an introduction to molecular spectroscopy (although most classes on this subject will require additional material) and to the subject of molecular dynamics (whose classes again will require additional material)…” Examples of “Quantum Mechanics in Chemistry” Textbook Sections, Chapters & Subchapters include
Chapter 2: Approximation methods can be used when exact solutions to the Schrödinger equation can not be found; Chapter 3: Application of the Schrödinger equation to the motions of electrons and nuclei in a molecule lead to the chemists’ picture of electronic energy surfaces on which vibration and rotation occurs and among which transitions take place;
Subchapter 2: Rotation and Vibration of Diatomic Molecules; Section 2: Simple Molecular Orbital Theory; For more information see
uncertainty principles, Schrödinger equation, and operator and matrix methods. Basic applications of the following are discussed: onedimensional potentials (harmonic oscillator), threedimensional centrosymmetric potentials…” Examples of “Introductory to Quantum Mechanics I” Course Lectures include
The Machinery of Quantum Mechanics; Exactly Solvable Problems; Matrix Mechanics; Time Dependence; Angular Momentum; Central Potentials; etc…” For more information see Undergraduate Intermediate & Advanced Quantum Mechanics Courses, Textbooks, etc.
Waveparticle Duality; Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics; Onedimensional Potentials; Multiparticle Systems; Threedimensional Quantum Mechanics; Orbital Angular Momentum; Central Potentials; Spin Angular Momentum; Addition of Angular Momentum; Timeindependent Perturbation Theory; Timedependent Perturbation Theory; etc…” For more information see the
Towards the Path Integral Representation of the Kernel; Gaussian Path Integrals and Determinants; Generating Functionals and Perturbative Expansions; etc…” For more information see Graduate Quantum Mechanics Courses, Textbooks, etc.
Quantum Dynamics; Angular Momentum; Approximation Methods; Scattering Theory; etc…” For more information see the
Representation Theory, Dirac Notations, Hilbert Space; Postulates of Quantum Mechanics; Uncertainty Principle and Coherent states; The Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation; etc…” Analytically Solvable Model Problems for Freeparticle
Quantum Confinement: Applications to Quantum Dots, Fermi Gas, ThomasFermi Theory (and functional); etc…” Concepts behind Solutions to Atomic and Molecular Problems
Theory of Angular Momentum: Ladder operators, Spherical Harmonics: Transforming the Angular Momentum problem in Radial Coordinates; etc. Variational Principle; Independent Particles, Hartree Product, Slater Determinants; etc…” For more information see the
TwoLevel System; etc…” Basics of a TimeDependent Hamilitonian
Quantum Dynamics: The TimeEvolution Operator; Schrödinger, Heisenberg and Interaction Pictures; Perturbation Theory; Fermi’s Golden Rule; etc…” Interaction of Light and Matter
CrossSection for Absorption and Stimulated Emission; Spontaneous Emission; Quantized Radiation Field; etc…” Spectroscopoy with Correlation Functions;
Fluctuations in Spectroscopy; Quantum Fluctuations: Energy Gap Hamiltonian; etc…” Linear Response Theory; For more information see

Quantum Bound State; Quantum Wave Interference; SternGerlach Experiment; Double Wells and Covalent Bonds; etc…” For more information see
Superposition of Gaussian states in 2D Video; etc…” Boundary conditions
Doubleslit experiment Video; etc….” Harmonic Oscillator
Constant shape of a shifted eigenstate Video; etc…” Special Systems
Gaussian in a constant magnetic field; AharonovBohm effect Video…” Scattering
Tunneling through a barrier Video; Scattering at a cylindrical barrier Video; etc…” Advanced Quantum Mechanics Video Lessons include:
Dirac Equation
Lorentz transformation Video; Smooth potential well (positive energy) Video; Smooth potential well (negative energy) Video; Scattering at a high potential step; Scattering at a very high step (Klein’s paradox) Video; etc…” For more information see the
Strobed motion of a circular orbit wave packet; Spreading of a hydrogen circular orbit wave packet; etc…” Core Scattering
Core Scattering in Sodium: Classical vs. Hydrogenic Behavior…” Infinite Square Well Wave Packets
Terahertz Pulses
Shaping of a Terahertz Pulse by a Slit in a Thick Screen…” For more information see the 
Complex Combinations; Multiple Bases or Hybrid Bases; Show No Slicing, X Slicing, Y Slicing or Z Slicing; etc…” For more information see
picture showing the amplitude of Psi in the xz plane a certain number of Bohr radii from the nucleus. The reason the Applet graphs the amplitude of Psi instead of the modulus squared (the actual probability of finding the electron an x number of Bohr radii from the nucleus) is due to limitations in the color scale…” For more information see
a single particle in bound states in one dimension. It solves the Schrödinger equation and allows you to visualize the solutions…” For more information see
Schrödinger equation for a variety of standard Hamiltonians and permits users to define their own potential functions and rapidly display the results…” Some prepared examples of the Schrödinger Calculator include the:
H Atom 1s State and H Atom 2p State; Cl 2 Morse Potential; MalflietTjon Deuteron; 30th Excited of 0.5*x**4; The Double Harmonic Oscillator; Square Well; Two Narrow Pulses; “Atom” for Solid Slab and Solid Slab; Infinite Well Super Symmetric Partner…” For more information see
the integration of six model Hamiltonian systems by a variety of sympletic and nonsympletic methods…” For more information see
as Glauber states, and they are known as single harmonic oscillator prototypes of the coherent states of oscillating electromagnetic field, which are the model of ideal continuous wave laser field, or an electromagnetic field of unmodulated radio wave…” For more information see 
PEANO CURVES CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
given size will be filled ever denser by successive generations of this Peano curve. More mathematically: Given an arbitrairy point in the square and an epsilon > 0, no matter how small, there will be an N such that the Nth generation Peano curve passes by the given point at a distance smaller than epsilon…” For more information see
including such wave phenomena as interference, diffraction (single slit, double slit, etc.), refraction, resonance, phased arrays, and the Doppler effect…” For more information see
of the wave functions that describe these particles…” For more information see 
Quantum Computation
Handbook of Quantum Information For Undergraduates, Graduates & Scientists
Undergraduate Courses & Lectures
Foundations of Quantum Theory II: Measurement and Evolution; Quantum Entanglement; Quantum Information Theory; Quantum Computation; Quantum Error Correction; etc…” For more information see
Tensor Products, safe storage, teleportation, DeutschJozsa; Recursive Fourier Sampling, Simon’s Algorithm; Fourier Transform, Period Finding and Factoring in BQP; Hidden Subgroup Problem, quantum error correction; Phase Estimation; QMA completeness; etc…” For more information see
Chapter 3: Breaking RSA Encryption with a Quantum Computer: Shor’s Factoring Algorithm; Chapter 5: Quantum Error Correction; etc…” For more information see

Graduate Courses & Lectures with Videos/Movies & Sound
For more information see
Interference Video Lecture
Measurement Video Lecture
The Schroedinger Picture Video Lecture
A Quantum Algorithm Video Lecture
Grover’s Search Algorithm Video Lecture
For more information see
Lecture 3: Finite field GF(4), stabilizer codes as GF(4) codes, perfect quantum codes, definition of Clifford group, etc; Lecture 5: Generators of symplectic group, quantum GilbertVarshamov bound, quantum Hamming bound, etc.; Lecture 9: Circuit assumptions for fault tolerance reexamined (other universal gate sets, local gates, fresh ancillas, etc; etc…” For more information see
computers are based: superposition and interference. The superposition principle allows may operations to occur simultaneously…” For more information see 
GENERAL RELATIVITY, DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY, DIFFERENTIABLE MANIFOLDS,
Maxwell: Electricity & Magnestism; Einstein: Relativity & Constant c; Time Dilation; E = mc^{2}; Beyond Relativity…” For more information see
Contravariant and Covariant Vector Fields; Riemannian Manifolds; Covariant Differentiation; Geodesics and Local Inertial Frames; The Riemann Curvature Tensor; The Stress Tensor and the Relativistic StressEnergy Tensor; Three Basic Premises of General Relativity; etc…” For more information see
General definition of curvature using polygonal approximations (FoxMilnor’s theorem); Osculating circle, Kneser’s Nesting Theorem, total curvature, convex curves; Torsion, FrenetSeret frame, helices, spherical curves; Intrinsic metric and isometries of surfaces, Gauss’s Theorema Egregium, Brioschi’s formula for Gaussian curvature; The definition of geodesic curvature, and the proof that it is intrinsic; etc…” Examples of “Differential Geometry – Volume II: Manifolds” Course Lectures include
Definition of differential structures and smooth mappings between manifolds; Proofs of the inverse function theorem and the rank theorem; Proof of Whitney’s 2n+1 embedding theorem; Various definitions of orientability and the proof of their equivalence. Proof of the nonorientability of the Mobius strip and the nonembeddability of the real projective plane in R3. Proof that RPn is oreintable for n odd and is not orientable for n even; Definition of a Riemannian metric, and examples of Riemannian manifolds, including quotients of isometry groups and the hyperbolic space. The notion of distance on a Riemannian manifold and proof of the equivalence of the metric topology of a Riemannian manifold with its original topology; Riemannian connections, brackets, proof of the fundamental theorem of Riemannian geometry, induced connection on Riemannian submanifolds, reparameterizations and speed of geodesics, geodesics of the Poincare’s upper half plane; Exponential map and geodesic flow; etc…” For more information see
Tensor Algebra; Physics in a Gravitational Field; The Lie Derivative, Symmetries and Killing Vectors; The Schwarzschild Metric; Particle and Photon Orbits in the Schwarzschild Geometry; Linearised Gravity and Gravitational Waves; KaluzaKlein Theory; etc…” For more information see
Tangent Spaces and Derivatives; Submanifolds of Smooth Manifolds; etc…” Part II (PDF, 77 Pages)
Vector Bundles; Vector Fields, Lie Brackets and Flows…” Part III (PDF, 72 Pages)
Riemannian and PseudoRiemannian Manifolds; etc…” For more information see
For more information see the
material also includes long digressions into complex geometry and the geometry of 4manifolds, with special emphasis on topological considerations…” Examples from over “22” “Geometry of Manifolds” Course Lectures include
More Floer homology; almostcomplex structures; compatibility with a symplectic structure; polar decomposition; compatible triple; Horizontal distributions; metric connections; curvature of a connection: Intrinsic definition; expression in terms of connection 1form; Nijenhuis tensor; integrability; square of the dbar operator; NewlanderNirenberg theorem; Kähler manifolds; complex projective space; Symplectic fibrations; Thurston’s construction of symplectic forms; symplectic Lefschetz fibrations, Gompf and Donaldson theorems; Symplectic branched covers of symplectic 4manifolds; etc…” For more information see
vector fields and forms. It also makes an introduction to Lie groups, the de Rham theorem, and Riemannian manifolds…” Examples of “Geometry of Manifolds” Graduate Course Lectures include
Vector Bundles and the Differential: New Vector Bundles from Old; Vector Bundles and the Differential: The Tangent Bundle; Sard’s Theorem; Stratified Spaces; Smale’s Sard Theorem; etc…” For more information see
Rules of Calculus; LeviCivita Connections; The bundle of frames; Connections on principal bundles; Gauss’s lemma; Special relativity; Die Grundlagen der Physik; Submersions; Petrov types; etc…” For more information see RELATIVITY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
input the speed of the object, its mass, length, and clock time, and the calculator will automatically calculate what the object will look like to you…” For more information see
An Inertial Object of Zero Length; A Noninertial Object of Zero Length; A Inertial Object of Nonzero Length; A Light Ray or An Event…” For more information see RELATIVISTIC ACCELERATION CALCULATORS & APPLETS – TIME DILATION
quantitative tools for dealing with time dilation, relativistic acceleration, and even curved spacetime…” For more information see 
GENERAL RELATIVITY LESSONS, CALCULATORS, APPLETS & ANIMATIONS
Experiment 2: Flying Clocks; Experiment 3: A Light Clock; Experiment 4: Moving MichelsonMorley; Experiment 5: Barn & Ladder Paradox; Experiment 6: Car Headlight Experiment;…” For more information see 
TENSOR CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
differential geometry. Its purpose is the calculation of tensor components on curved spacetimes specified in terms of a metric or set of basis vectors…” Demonstrations of GRTensorII currently available are in the areas of:
Black Hole Perturbations; The GRJunction Package & Engineering Applications..” For more information see
SCATTERING, ABSORPTION & EXTINCTION RELATED CENTERS FOR SCATTERING, ABSORPTION & EXTINCTION DATABASES SEE SCATTERING, ABSORPTION AND EXTINCTION EFFIEIENCIES CALCULATORS & APPLETS
properties as functions of freely selectable parameters…” MieCalc Calculator INPUT Values include:
Imaginary Part of the Refractive Index of the Particle (refim); Wavelength in Vacuum (lambda); Diameter of the Particle (d); etc…” For more information see 
SENSORS & DEVICES RELATED CENTERS FOR RELATED COURSES, LECTURES, TEXTBOOKS, CALCULATORS, ETC SEE THE ZERO BALANCE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
parallel with the bridge, will balance the sensor’s zero…” Zero Balance Calculator INPUT Values include:
For more information see
SPECTROSCOPY RELATED CENTERS FOR MORE SPECTROSCOPY COURSES, LECTURES, CALCULATORS, DATABASES, ETC. SEE THE EXAMPLES OF SPECTROSCOPY DATABASE, CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Hydrocarbon Spectral Database…” “…Each of the databases covers primarily the microwave region with some data available for the radio frequency region…” “…Rotational spectral lines for 121 diatomic molecules, 55 triatomic molecules, and 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given…” For more information see
doublet splittings, and energy separations of photoelectron and Augerelectron lines…” For more information see
Spectroscopy Calculators include:
Enhanced IRWizard (more than 2000 entries)…” Spectroscopy Databases & Calculators include:
NMR Solvents; J(H,H) Couplings; ^{13}C chemical shifts Calculator; ^{17}O chemical shifts; ^{13}C chemical shift; etc…” For more information see

Physics of Racing (NASCAR) Courses, Lectures, etc. with Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound
Turning, GForces & Banked Tracks; Center of Gravity; Centripetal Accleration; Centripetal Force; Friction; Pressure; etc….” Building Cars;
“…This video series uses the elements of NASCAR to show that a racecar really is a science experiment on wheels…” Examples from over “11” “The Science of Speed” Videos include
Friction & Heat Video; Grip Video; Tires & Pressure Video (NASCAR tires don’t have “air pressure” because they’re filled with nitrogen); Turning Video; Power Video; Balance Video; etc…” For more information see Physics of Racing Courses, Lectures, etc. with Text & Images
will concentrate mainly on four wheeled, petrol driven vehicles, but the same physical problems apply to all kinds of vehicles…” Examples of “Physics of Motorsport” Course Chapters include
The Straights; The Racing Line; Skids and Why they Happen; etc…” For more information see
Keeping Your Tires Stuck to the Ground; Basic Calculations; Introduction to the Racing Line; Speed and Horsepower; The Traction Budget; Simulating Car Dynamics with a Computer Program; Straights; etc…” For more information see
into the design of a baseball or softball bat, especially the new hightech aluminum and composite bats which are currently dominating the market. There is also an amazing amount of physics involved in the batball collision, and in the performance and behavior of the bat itself…” Examples of “Physics and Acoustics of Baseball and Softball Bats” Lessons include
How large are the forces between bat and ball?; How does bat weight affect swing speed and ball velocity?; Which matters more: total weight or mass distribution (inertia)?; What is the COP (center of percussion) and does it matter?; What (and where) is the sweet spot of a bat?; etc…” For more information see
The Effect of Spin on the Flight of a Baseball; The Physics of the Trampoline Effect in Baseball and Softball Bats; How to Hit Home Runs: Optimum Baseball Bat Swing Parameters for Maximum Range Trajectories; Paradoxical popups: Why are they hard to catch?; Newton in the Batter’s Box; Baseball at High Altitude; etc…” For more information see
the flight of the ball. The resulting flight path is three dimensional, so you must specify some additional parameters not found on the student version. You can also view the results of the pitch from behind home plate…” For more information see
throws a curveball by changing the values of the factors that affect the aerodynamic forces on the ball…”
of a wing turns a flow, and so does a rotating cylinder. A spinning ball also turns a flow and generates an aerodynamic lift force. The details of how a spinning ball creates lift are fairly complex. Next to any surface, the molecules of the air stick to the surface, as discussed in the properties of air slide. This thin layer of molecules entrains or pulls the…”
we neglect the viscous forces on the ball, which slow it down and change the magnitude and direction of the force, we have a constant force always acting perpendicular (at a right angle) to the flow direction…”
Billiards and Pool Videos
Spin and English Videos; Bank and Kick Shots Videos; Advanced Techniques (Shot Making) Videos; Additional clips not referenced in the book
Kick shot perpendicular to the rail with English Video; Draw shot with small offset, firm grip, punch stroke, slow speed, and about 1.5 feet of draw Video; Cut shot with outside English and slow speed Video; Two frozen object balls hit with a 15degree approach angle stop shot at slow and fast speeds Video; English and squirt for a soft tip at slow speed and increasing offsets Video; Power break – cue followthrough Video; Rail cutshot hitting the ball first early with OE; etc…” For more information see
Spin and English Videos; Position Play and Strategy Videos; Bank and Kick Shots Videos; Advanced Techniques (Shot Making) Videos; Additional clips not referenced in the book
Doublekiss bank shot examples with Tom Ross Video; Draw shots near a rail, with Tom Ross; Cue ball position control with nearly straightin shots Video; Cue ball path speed effects Video; etc…” For more information see Billiards and Pool Courses, Lectures, etc.
Spin and English; Bank and Kick Shots; Additional Proofs
The Effects of English on the 30 Degress Rule; Cue accelerometer measurements; The relationship between cue ball spin and cue tip offset; The effect of spin, speed, and cut angle on draw shots; The physics of squirt; Draw shot physics; etc…” For more information see
Examples from over “18” “Football Physics” Course Video Lectures include
Vectors Video Lecture; Newton’s Third Law Video Lecture; Impulse Video Lecture; Atoms and Photons Video Lecture; Quickness, Speed, Power and Strength Video Lecture; Momentum Video Lecture; Punting Video Lecture; Symmetry Video Lecture; Distribution of Force Video Lecture; Energy Consumption Video Lecture; Tackling Video Lecture; Kinematics Video Lecture; Advanced Momentum Video Lecture; Turf Physics Video Lecture; etc…” For more information see
The Physics of the Lasso
in which the rope is driven by the steady circular motion of the roper’s hand in a horizontal plane. We first consider the case of a fixed (nonsliding) honda. Noting that the rope’s shape is steady in the reference frame rotating with the hand, we analyse a string model in which line tension is balanced by the centrifugal force and the rope’s weight. We use numerical continuation…” For more information see
Roping & Lasso Videos
You move water one way with your oar, the boat moves the other way. The momentum (=mass x velocity) you put into the water will be equal and opposite to the momentum acquired by the boat…During the normal stroke (i.e. with the boat already moving) it is less obvious that water is moved backwards in order to keep the boat moving forwards since the blades appear to ‘lock’ in where they are placed, but…” Examples of “Physics of Rowing” Course Chapters & Subchapters include
Speed Variation; Balance; Levers; Gearing; Newton’s Laws of Motion…” Physics of Weight & Rowing
Relationship between Weight and Erg Speed; Relationship between Weight and Boat Speed; Effect of Deadweight; etc…” Physics of Ergometers
Measuring the Damping; Measuring the Power Supplied; Effect of Altitude; etc…” For more information see
Wave generation, propagation; Wave refraction; Energetics of surfing; Fluid mechanics of a surfboard; Where the Swell Begins; etc…” For more information see
on the planet (in nautical miles) or determine how long it will take a swell to travel to your beach…” For more information see 
STATISTICAL MECHANICS COURSES, LECTURES & TEXTBOOKS Statistical Mechanics Textbooks
but of sophisticated students and researchers in mathematics, biology, engineering, computer science, and the social sciences….” Examples of “Statistical Mechanics: Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity” Textbook Chapters include
Temperature and equilibrium; Entropy; Free energies; Quantum statistical mechanics; Order parameters, broken symmetry, and topology; Abrupt phase transitions; etc…” For more information see Statistical Mechanics Courses & Lectures
at the macroscale (thermodynamics) can be obtained by analyzing the spontaneous fluctuations at the microscale (dynamics of molecules)…” Examples of “Introduction to Statistical Mechanics” Lectures include
Probability; Classical Mechanics; Microcanonical Ensemble; Thermodynamics Entropy; NPT and Grand Canonical Ensembles; Applications to Solids; etc…” For more information see
Statistical Ensembles; Noninteracting Quantum Systems; Interacting Systems; Mean Field Theory of Phase Transitions; Nonequilibrium Phenomena; etc…” For more information see
Critical phenomena. Scaling. Continuum field theory; Monte Carlo; Finish Coldea experiment. Begin frustrated magnets and ice; Spin ice. Spin liquid and correlations; Finish spin ice. Begin order by disorder; Quantum critical points in metals – introduction; Hertz theory. Upper critical dimension; etc…” For more information see
Characterizing the structure of liquids; Perturbation theory and the van der Waals equation; Discretized and continuous path integrals; Expansion about the classical path and stationary phase; Calculation of spectra from perturbation theory; etc…” For more information see the
STRING THEORY COURSES, LECTURES & TEXTBOOKS
the foundations of the subject can be explained to students exposed to both special relativity and basic quantum mechanics. This course develops the aspects of string theory and makes it accessible to students familiar with basic electromagnetism and statistical mechanics…” Examples from over “24” “String Theory for Undergraduates” Course Lectures include
Nonrelativistic Strings and Lagrangian Mechanics; Area Formula for Spatial Surfaces; Relativistic Strings: NambuGoto Action, Equations of Motion and Boundary Conditions; Solution of the Open String Motion in the Lightcone Gaug; Closed Strings; etc…” For more information see 
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics Courses & Textbooks
processes that involve changes in temperature, transformation of energy, and the relationships between heat and work…” Examples of “Thermodynamics” Course Chapters include
The First Law of Thermodynamics; The First Law Applied to Engineering Cycles; Background to the Second Law of Thermodynamics; The Second Law of Thermodynamics; Applications of the Second Law; Entropy on the Microscopic Scale; Power Cycles with TwoPhase Media; Introduction to Propulsion; Integral Momentum Equation; Generating Heat: Thermochemistry; Conductive Heat Transfer; Convective Heat Transfer; etc…” For more information see
Energy and Work, the 1st Law of Thermodynamics; Transport Phenomena; Macrostates and Microstates; Entropy and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics; Entropy and Temperature; Heat Engines; Thermodynamic Potentials; The van der Waals Gas; Phase Transformations in Binary Mixtures; Chemical Equilibrium; Boltzmann Statistics; Canonical Ensembles; Degenerate Fermi Gas; BoseEinstein Condensation; Debye Theory of Solids; etc…” For more information see
Gibbsien Equations; Legendre Transforms; Introduction to Statistical Mechanics; Statistics & Ensembles; Classical & Semiclassical Partition Functions; Chemical Equilibrium Constants and Nonideal Behavior; Virial Coefficients, Equations of State, and the Pair Correlation Function; Conformal Solutions Theory and Generalized Cubic EOS; etc…” For more information see the
Statistical Ensembles; Noninteracting Quantum Systems; Interacting Systems; Mean Field Theory of Phase Transitions; Nonequilibrium Phenomena; etc…” For more information see
of many body systems. Virtually all substances which we encounter in everyday life are many body systems of some sort or other (e.g., solids, liquids, gases, and light). Not surprisingly, therefore, thermodynamics is a discipline with an exceptionally wide range of applicability…” Examples of “Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics” Course Chapters include
Statistical Mechanics; Heat and Work; Statistical Thermodynamics; Classical Thermodynamics; Applications of Statistical Thermodynamics; Quantum Statistics; etc…” For more information see the Thermodynamics Lessons, Tools, Calculators, Applets, Simulations
TEST offers analysis tools for property evaluation of hundreds of working substances, energy, entropy, and exergy analysis of open and closed systems, IC engines, gas and vapor power cycles, refrigeration, HVAC, combustion, chemical equilibrium, and gas dynamics…” For more information see the
Quebec, Canada. We hope you find it is a useful tool to help you understand common heat transfer problems and thermal phenomena. Although we try and test the tools to ensure quality, this tool is provided for your personal use…” Thermal Wizard includes:
Air; Gases; Water; Liquids; etc…” Conduction Calculators examples include
Conduction Across Multilayered Isothermal Cylinder Calculator; Thermal Interface (Contact) Resistance and Temperature Difference Calculator; Rectangular Thin Plate Embedded in SemiInfinite Medium Calculator; etc…” Convection Calculators examples include:
Forced Convection in the Fully Developed Region of a Duct Calculator; Forced Convection Across Isothermal Square Rod Calculator; Natural Convection in a Vertical Parallel Plate Channel Calculator; Natural Convection between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders Calculator; etc…” Radiation Calculators examples include:
Radiation between Parallel Disk Surfaces of Unequal Radius Calculator; etc…” Head Loss Coefficients Calculators examples include:
Head Loss Across a Thin Perforated Plate Calculator; Head Loss Across Louvers Calculator; etc…” For more information see 
Thermochemical
selected set of 631 gasphase molecules. Tools for comparing experimental and computational idealgas thermochemical properties…” Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Calculated Data includes:
Rotation and Moments of Inertia; Bond orders from AIM analysis; Point Group for a given molecule at different levels of theory; etc…” Vibrations Calculated Data
Vibrational frequencies, intensities and reduced masses; Compare reduced masses for a given vibrational mode; Bad Vibrational Frequency calculations; etc…” Entropies Calculated Data
Energetics Calculated Data
Barriers to Internal Rotation; Nuclear repulsion Energies; etc…” Electrostatics Calculated Data
Electric dipole moments; Polarizabilities; etc…” Compare Calculations
Compare calculated vibrational intensities vibrations; Compare energy difference of a single point calculation; Calculated properties for several species; etc…” For more information see the
It allows the user to perform simulations of crystallization and assimilation in magmatic systems under various evolution scenarios, such as adiabatic decompression melting, fractional crystallization, etc…” Geothermometer Applet
geothermometer. Once completed. theapplet will permit onthefly creation of mineral geothermometers by allowing the user to select among internally consistent thermodynamic models for phases, mixing and matching endmembers, until univariant reactions are…” Phase Properties Applet
at OFM Research Inc. It allows the user to select a phase, optionally input its composition, convert between practical and thermodynamic components, and…” For more information see the
Fluorine; Carbon monoxide; Carbon dioxide; Dinitrogen Monoxide; Deuterium oxide; Methanol; Methane; Ethane; Ethene; Propane; Propene; Propyne; Cyclopropane; Butane; etc…” Units
Viscosity; Surface Tension…” Type of Data
Saturation Properties…” Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems Calculator OUTPUT values include:
Auxiliary Data
Critical Pressure; Critical Density; Acentric Factor; Normal Boiling Point; Dipole Moment…” etc. For more information see
components and produce a graph of pressure vs. volume with lines of constant temperature. A second graph is pressure vs. enthalpy with lines of constant temperature…” Thermodynamic Properties Calculator (with Final Pressure Other Than One Atmosphere)
components and determine the vaporliquid split (if twophase), the liquid and vapor densities, enthalpies, heat capacities, and compositions at an input temperature and pressure…” Thermodynamic Properties Calculator (for Light Hydrocarbons)
or a mixture of components and determine the vaporliquid split (if twophase), the liquid and vapor densities, enthalpies, heat capacities, and compositions at an input temperature and pressure…” Dew Points and Bubble Points Calculator
components and calculate dew points and bubble points. This page is uses the PengRobinson equation of state to predict the properties of these mixtures…” For more information see

of phase stability relationships in abinary system with up to 4 phases…&…will compute and display the GX diagram in the panel at upperright and isobaric and isothermal sections in the lower panels…” For more information see
from any set of reactants and determines thermodynamic and transport properties for the product mixture. Builtin applications include calculation of theoretical rocket performance, ChapmanJouguet detonation parameters, shock tube parameters, and combustion properties…” “…Associated with the program are independent databases with transport and thermodynamic properties of individual species. Over 2000 species are contained in the thermodynamic database…” Thermo Build
state thermodynamic properties of individual species…” CAP (Coefficients And Properties)
from thermodynamic data in the NASA format…” PAC (Properties And Coefficients)
required by CEA, from gasphase spectroscopic constants or tabulated literature data…” For more information see
role in the prediction of the extent of reaction and the position of equilibrium for any process in which these reactions occur…” “…The data presented herein is limited to direct equilibrium and calorimetric measurements performed on these reactions under in vitro conditions. This is the principal thermodynamic information that is needed to determine the position of equilibrium of a given reaction…” Examples of “Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions” using predefined values include
Buffer; Enzyme; ECNumber; Method; pH; Cofactor; Evaluation; etc…” For more information see
HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATORS, APPLETS & SPREADSHEETS (XLS) THERMAL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS Heat Transfer Courses, Lectures, Textbooks, etc.
Heat Conduction Concepts, Thermal Resistance, and the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient; Heat Exchanger Design; Analysis of Heat Conduction and some Steady Onedimensional Problems; Transient and Multidimensional Heat Conduction; Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers; Forced Convection in a Variety of Configurations; Heat Transfer in Boiling and other Phasechange Configurations; Radiative Heat Transfer; An Introduction to Mass Transfer; etc. For more information see Heat Conduction Calculators, Applets, Simulations, etc.
Stainless Steel; etc…” Thickness; Temperature…” For more information see Heat Transfer Calculators, Spreadsheets (xls), Models, etc.
Fluid Properties: Thermal Fluid Properties Calculator; Heat Sinks: Natural Convection for Rectangular Heat Sinks Calculator; Special Functions Calculator
complementary error functions, gamma functions, and Bessel functions of integer or fractional order, etc. Spreading Resistance Calculators
Spreading Resistance of Rectangular Disk with Edge Cooling Calculator; etc…” For more information see the
conduction in a unit square with one boundary held at a different temperature than the other three and…” Planck’s Law Calculator
power for a number of source temperatures…” Radiation View Factors Calculators include:
Coaxial Disks Calculator; Coaxial Cylinders Calculator; Parallel Rectangles Calculator…” Solution of Blasius Equation Calculator
for flow in a laminar, selfsimilar, flat plate boundary layer. The RungeKutta integration scheme and shooting algorithm…” InternalFlow Convection Correlations Calculator
a circular pipe as a function of the Reynolds (based on diameter) and Prandtl numbers…” OneDimensional Compressible Flows Calculator
(2) Normal shock functions, (3) Flow with friction (Fanno Line), and (4) Flow with heat addition (Rayleigh Line)…” For more information see Thermal Calculators, Applets, Simulations, Models, etc.

for a species, a group of species, or a chemical reaction…” “…Select the units, specify a temperature range and enter a chemical reaction – Up to 2 reactants and 2 products may be entered…” “…If the reaction is unbalanced (and contains no charged ions), ReactionWeb attempts to balance it before computing the properties…” PredomWeb – Onemetal Isothermal Predominance Area Diagram
which possible compound phases are most stable over the specified ranges of the axes….” EpHWeb – Onemetal Eh vs pH Pourbaix Diagram
various concentrations (m) of solutes in a dilute aqueous phase…”
FACT Database for Hall Aluminum Process; FACT Light Metal Alloy Databases; FactSage Lead Alloy Database; FactSage Steel Alloy Database; SGTE Solder Alloy Database; etc…”
Binary Noble Metal Phase Diagrams; Binary Copper Phase Diagrams; Binary Lead Phase Diagrams; Nuclear Binary and Ternary Phase Diagrams; Aluminium Pproduction Phase Diagrams; Pulp and Paper Phase Diagrams; etc…”
thousands of compounds as well as to evaluated and optimized databases for hundreds of solutions of metals, liquid and solid oxide solutions, mattes, molten and solid salt solutions, aqueous solutions, etc…” With FactSage
multicomponent equilibria, with a wide variety of tabular and graphical output modes, under a large range of constraints. For example, general Ncomponent phase diagram sections can be easily generated with a wide choice of axis variables; matte/metal/slag/gas/solid equilibria can be accurately calculated, tabulated and plotted for industrial systems; multicomponent predominance and EpH diagrams…” For more information see the
zero magnetic field calculated from D.S. Greywall…” Helium 3 Calculator INPUT Values include:
For more information see
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kinetics results for thermal gasphase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these…” Chemical Kinetics Database
separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs…” For more information see
Unsaturated Oxygenates Compounds; Nitrogen Containing Oxygenates Compounds; etc…” For more information see
IUPAC Subcommittee for Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation…” Evaluated Kinetic Databases include
Data sheets for photolysis reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx, SOx and organic species; Data sheets for hetereogeneous reactions on solids; Data sheets for hetereogeneous reactions on liquids…” For more information see
records with a total of 29,141 rate constants…” “…Enter the reactant(s), product(s), and/or solvent(s) in the fields below. Compounds may be entered by formula, name, or CAS number…” For more information see
petrology students interested in extracting pressuretemperature information from rocks. It is assumed that you have completed a typical undergraduate petrology course…” Examples of “Mineral Thermobarometry” Course Lessons include
Chemical Mineralogy of Common Mineral Groups; Solid solutions, mixing models and activity calculations; etc…” THERMOCALC
for tackling mineral equilibria problems. It has two main components: the application itself, and the internallyconsistent thermodynamic dataset it uses…” For more information see
Combustion
Engine Cycle Models
Finite Heat Release Otto Cycle; Finite Heat Release Otto Cycle with Heat Transfer…” For more information see
WAVE EQUATION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS 
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