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Currently the Calculators On-Line Center contains
over "23,525" Calculators & Spreadsheets,

over "4,305" Courses, Lectures, Manuals, Handbooks,
& "1,000's" of Movies, Videos, Simulations & Animations


CHEMISTRY: M-O
(Course, Lectures, Databases, Animations, Simulations,
Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets,
3D Modeling, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound, etc.)



Materials Hardness ~ Medicinal Chemistry


Microfluidics


Microscopy,
Autofluorescence, Fluorescence Microscopy, Stereomicroscopy,
Photomicrography, Confocal Microscopy Transmission,
Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,
Nanomicroscopy, Photoionization Microscopy, Quantum Microscopy,
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), etc.



Mineral Chemistry ~ Molecular Anions


Molecular Mass, Molar Mass, Exact Mass,
Molarity, Elemental Composition, Isotope Ratios, etc.



Molecular & Atomic Weight ~ Molecular Structure ~ NMR & MRI


Nanotechnology ~ Nondestructive Testing ~ Nuclear Chemistry ~ Opacity Computations


Organic Chemistry ~ Organometallic Chemistry





Chemistry Center



Calculators On-Line Center












Microscopy



Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy,
Stereomicroscopy, Photomicrography, Confocal Microscopy, etc.



Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) ~ Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)


Nanomicroscopy


Photoionization Microscopy ~ Quantum Microscopy


Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) &
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)



Microscopy Tools


Fixatives & Buffers ~ Tissue Dielectric Properties




    Microscopy


      MICROSCOPY LECTURES, LESSONS, CALCULATORS, APPLETS, SIMULATIONS, ETC.

        MICROANALYSIS LECTURES, LESSONS, CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS, ETC.

        NYQUIST RATE AND PSF CALCULATOR - Scientific Volume Imaging B.V., The Netherlands VERY EXTENSIVE.
        Examples of Nyquist Rate INPUT Values include
          "...Microscope type;
          Numerical aperture;
          Excitation wavelength;
          Emission wavelength;
          Number of excitation photons; etc..."
        Examples of PSF INPUT Values include
          "... Specimen medium refractive index;
          Acquisition depth;
          Backprojected pinhole radius; etc..."
        For more information see Scientific Volume Imaging



        BACKPROJECTED CONFOCAL PINHOLE CALCULATOR - Scientific Volume Imaging B.V., The Netherlands VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        Backprojected confocal pinhole calculator
          "...A pinhole is a small hole used in Confocal Microscopes at the detection side of the lenses to get rid of out-of-focus light, thus allowing to record real 3D images..."
          "...Backprojected means as it appears imaged on the specimen plane: the physical pinhole size is divided by the total magnification of the detection system..."
        For more information see Scientific Volume Imaging



        DUAL COLOR N&B CALCUALTORS - Stowers Microscopy Center, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
        Dual Color N&B Calculators
          "...Dual color FCS measurements contain a wealth of information about molecular interactions and stoichiometry..."
        Examples of Dual Color N&B Calculators include
          "...Brightnesses of Independent Species are Known (G(0) Version);
          Brightnesses of Independent Species are Known (N&B Version);
          Stoichiometry of Complex is Known (G(0) Version); etc..."
        For more information see Stowers Microscopy Center; Stowers Research Website Directory or Stowers Institute for Medical Research



        MICROSCOPYU (FLASH & JAVA APPLETS) - Nikon MicroscopyU, Nikon Multimedia Microscopy Courses & Lessons (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations, Calculators & Applets). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        MicrosopyU is
          "...designed to provide an educational forum for all aspects of optical microscopy, digital imaging, and photomicrography..."
        Examples of "Microscopy" Categories & Subcategories include
          Basic Concepts and Formulas in Microscopy
            "...Conjugate Planes in Optical Microscopy;
            Depth of Field and Depth of Focus;
            Refractive Index;
            Numerical Aperture;
            Working Distance and Parfocal Length; etc..."
          Microscope Optical Systems
            "...Infinity Optical Systems;
            Properties of Microscope Objectives; etc..."
          Principles of Phase Contrast Microscopy
            "...Specimen Contrast in Optical Microscopy;
            Optical Pathways in the Phase Contrast Microscope;
            Interaction of Light Waves with Phase Specimens; etc..."
          Differential Interference Contrast
            "...Reflected Light DIC Microscopy;
            Bias Retardation Effects on Specimen Contrast;
            DIC Microscope Component Alignment; etc..."
          Concepts in Fluorescence Microscopy
            "...Introduction to Fluorescent Proteins;
            Fundamentals and Applications in Multiphoton Microscopy;
            Fluorescence Filter Noise Terminator; etc..."
          Introduction to Live-Cell Imaging Techniques
            "...Maintaining Live Cells on the Microscope Stage;
            Cell Motility;
            Optical System and Detector Requirements for Live-Cell Imaging; etc..."
          Fundamentals of Stereomicroscopy;
          Introduction to Confocal Microscopy; etc..."
        For more information see Nikon USA

          Examples from over "150" Microscopy Lessons, Calculators, Applets, etc. include

            Microscope Optical Systems Calculators & Applets
            Microscope Optical Systems Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Tube Lens Focal Length;
              Immersion Oil and Refractive Index;
              Numerical Aperture Light Cones;
              Geometrical Construction of Ray Diagrams; Perfect Lens Characteristics; etc..."

            Phase Contrast Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Phase Contrast Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Phase Contrast Microscope Alignment;
              Optical Pathways in the Phase Contrast Microscope;
              Phase Plate Configuration Effects on Specimen Contrast;
              Specimen Optical Path Length Variations; etc..."

            Differential Interference Contrast Calculators & Applets
            Differential Interference Contrast Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Bias Retardation Effects on Specimen Contrast;
              DIC Microscope Component Alignment;
              Comparison of Phase Contrast and DIC Microscopy;
              Wavefront Relationships in Reflected Light DIC Microscopy; etc..."

            Fluorescence Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Fluorescence Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Focus and Alignment of Mercury and Xenon Arc Lamps;
              Matching Fluorescent Probes with Fluorescence Filter Blocks;
              Choosing Fluorescent Proteins for Dual Labeling Experiments;
              Balancing Arc-Discharge Lamp Excitation Illumination;
              Stereomicroscopy Fluorescence; etc..."

            Fundamentals of Stereomicroscopy Calculators & Applets
            Fundamentals of Stereomicroscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Oblique Coherent Contrast Illumination;
              Toroidal Mirrors;
              SMZ-1500 Stereoscopic Microscope;
              SMZ-1500 Oblique Coherent Contrast Illumination; etc..."



        OPTICAL MICROSCOPY FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS (FLASH & JAVA APPLETS) - Olympus America, Inc. Multimedia Microscopy Courses, Lessons, etc. (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations, Calculators & Applets). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        Optical Microscopy is
          "...designed to provide an Internet-based educational forum on all aspects of optical microscopy, photomicrography, and digital imaging..."
        Examples of "Microscopy" Categories & Subcategories include
          Anatomy of the Microscope
            "...Simple Magnification;
            Numerical Aperture;
            Condenser Aperture Diaphragm;
            Condenser Light Cones;
            Alignment of the Lamp Filament; etc..."
          Light and Color
            "...Optical Diffraction;
            Electromagnetic Radiation;
            Jablonski Diagram;
            Brewster's Angle;
            Concave Mirrors;
            Convex Mirrors;
            Refraction of Light; etc..."
          Specialized Techniques
            "...Optical Gradients in Phase Objects;
            Optical Path Difference;
            Rheinberg Illumination;
            Cardioid Condensers; etc..."
        For more information see Olympus Corporation

          Examples from over "150" Microscopy Lessons, Calculators, Applets, etc. include

            Physics of Light and Color Calculators & Applets
            Physics of Light and Color Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Electromagnetic Radiation;
              Sources of Visible Light;
              Fluorescence;
              Speed of Light;
              Reflection of Light;
              Refraction of Light;
              Diffraction of Light; etc..."

            Photomicrography Calculators & Applets
            Photomicrography Calculators & Applets include:
              Exposure and Color Balance;
              Didymium Filters;
              Filter Classes;
              Photomask Reticle Operation;
              Exposure Metering; etc..."

            Fluorescence Microscopy
            Fluorescence Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Practical Aspects of Fluorescence Filter Combinations;
              Optimization and Troubleshooting;
              Electronic Imaging Detectors;
              Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy;
              Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy; etc..."

            Confocal Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Confocal Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Spectral Bleed-Through Artifacts in Confocal Microscopy;
              Choosing Fluorophore Combinations for Confocal Microscopy; etc..."

            Virtual Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Virtual Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy;
              Phase Contrast Microscopy;
              Reflected Light Confocal Microscopy; etc..."



        MICROSCOPY (FLASH & JAVA APPLETS) - M.W. Davidson, Florida State University Multimedia Microscopy Courses & Lessons (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations, Calculators & Applets). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        Virtual Microscopy explores
          "...specimen focus, illumination intensity, magnification, and translation---operating essentially in a manner that is identical to real-life microscopes..."
        For more information see Molecular Expressions: Exploring the World of Optics & Microscopy

          Examples from over "100" Microscopy Lessons, Calculators, Applets, etc. include

            Basic Concepts in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Basic Concepts in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...The Concept of Magnification;
              Introduction to Lenses and Geometrical Optics;
              Microscope Optical Components;
              Microscope Illumination;
              Image Brightness; etc..."

            Digital Imaging in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Digital Imaging in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              Concepts in Digital Imaging Technology;
              Basic Properties of Digital Images;
              Introduction to Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs);
              Introduction to CMOS Image Sensors; etc..."

            Specialized Microscopy Techniques Calculators & Applets
            Specialized Microscopy Techniques Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Darkfield Microscopy;
              Differential Interference Contrast;
              Oblique or Anaxial Illumination;
              Phase Contrast;
              Deconvolution in Optical Microscopy;
              Live-Cell Imaging;
              Confocal Microscopy; etc..."
















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